Isabel is 88 years old and has been blind since age 25 because of the disease. In 71 gave her 6 months of life. He is currently recovering from a hernia operation and now wants to return to their beach walks. The reconstruction of the recent history of territorial differentiation of the incidence of leprosy, as regions and states in Brazil, to distinguish an uneven spatiotemporal evolution interregional, intraregional and interstate, such as those below will descritas.La current distribution Leprosy in Brazil, shows its concentration in 14 of the 27 states. In seven of the North (Rondônia, Acre, Amazonas, Roraima, Pará, Amapá and Tocantins), four from the Northeast (Maranhão, Piauí, Ceará and Pernambuco), two of the Central-West (Mato Grosso and Goiás ) and one of the Southeast (Espírito Santo). In these states is concentrated about 80% of notifications in the period studied. The states with the highest detection and tilted to the downside of the endemic, had high population growth, especially in the 60s and 70s. The North and Midwest, gained the highest rates of population growth. Recorded in the mid-90s, the highest percentages of migrant population, and the most intense growth in the detection rate of leprosy cases. The historical high incidence of leprosy in the Northern region in the state of Maranhão and Pernambuco in the Northeast region of the state of Paraná Sul in the region and relatively low incidence in the rest of the latter region, suggesting existence of different geographical contexts of vulnerability to the social production of leprosy, and new components in the spatial organization in some territories. While we accept the possible influence of operational factors in the construction of these regularities, it is unlikely that these have been maintained for over 70 years.