INDIA CROSSING THE RIVER GANGES The Red Fort and the Taj Mahal bear an exceptional and complementary testimony to a civilization which has disappeared; that of the Mogul Emperors. Agra's history goes back more than 2; 500 years; but it was not until the reign of the Mughals that Agra became more than a provincial city. Humayun; son of the founder of the Mogul Empire; was offered jewellery and precious stones by the family of the Raja of Gwalior; one of them the famous Koh-i-Noor. The heyday of Agra came with the reign of Humayun's son; Akbar the Great. During his reign; the main part of the Agra Fort was built. The Red Fort of Agra is a powerful fortress founded in 1565 by the Emperor Akbar (1556-1605) on the right bank of the Yamuna; it is placed today on the north-west extremity of the Shah Jahan Gardens which surround the Taj Mahal and clearly form; with them; a monumental unity. This bastioned fortress; with walls of red sandstone rising above a moat and interrupted by graceful curves and lofty bastions; encompasses within its enclosure walls of 2.5 km; the imperial city of the Mogul rulers. Like the Delhi Fort; that of Agra is one of the most obvious symbols of the Mogul grandeur which asserted itself under Akbar; Jahangir and Shah Jahan. The wall has two gates; the Delhi Gate and the Amar Singh Gate. The original and grandest entrance was through the Delhi Gate; which leads to the inner portal called the Hathi Pol or Elephant Gate. But now the entrance to the fort is only through the Amar Singh Gate.