Sunset near the camp Savute Elephant Camp Botswna Orient Express in Chobe National Park. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE HISTORY OF BOTSWANA: It is believed that the San people (Bushmen) lived Botswana thirty thousand years ago still Tsodilo Hills with over 3,500 paintings the best proof of this. They were followed by the Khoi-Khoi (Hottentots) of cattle culture, and later the Bantu, who migrated from the northwestern and eastern regions of Africa between the first and second centuries of our era and settled along the Chobe River. Until the eighteenth century various Bantu groups such as Tswana, grouped in small communities lived peacefully in the Kalahari. Disputes mutually conducive separations. By 1800, the pastures along the Kalahari were occupied by shepherds and peaceful separation ceased to be a feasible solution to dissensions. Moreover, the Europeans had come to the Cape and expanded northward. Upon binding of the Zulu tribes in South Africa in 1818, the settlers attacked the scattered Tswana peoples, enhancing their vulnerability. In response, regrouped and society was structured in a complex way: a hereditary monarchy regulated every nation and subjects Tswana populations residing in centralized and satellite populations. The order and structure of Tswana society impressed the Christian missionaries, who were introduced in the early nineteenth century. They failed to evangelize a large majority, but got advise, sometimes wrongly, in their dealings with Europeans. Meanwhile, the Boers initiated the Great Migration (Great Trek, 1834-1844) to the Vaal, crossing the Tswana and Zulu territory and imposing Western laws. Many Indians worked on farms boer, but the rebellion and violence led to the failure of this working partnership. In 1877 the animosity had grown so that the British intervened to annex the Transvaal, triggering the Boer War. Following the 1881 convention Pretoria Boer pressure decreased, but the following year returned to Tswana land, who returned to claim British protection. Britain's intervention led to indigenous peoples to accept their conditions. The lands south of the Molopo River became known British Crown Colony of Bechuanaland, while the area north became the British Protectorate of Bechuanaland (now Botswana). Not counting the years when Britain ceded control to the South Africa Company of Cecil Rhodes, dominated the country until 1966. Nationalism had developed extensively during the fifties and sixties. After the Sharpeville massacre in 1960, formed the Bechuanaland People's Party, whose aim was focused on independence. In 1965 general elections were held, and Seretse Khama was elected president. The September 30, 1966, the Republic of Botswana gained independence. With the discovery of diamond mines near Orapa in 1967, Botswana became economically. Although most of the population belonged to the most disadvantaged, this mineral wealth gave the country huge foreign reserves and Pula (Botswana currency) became a major African currencies. But in 1999, the international diamond market collapsed and took the first budget deficit in 16 years in Botswana. In any case, in relation to the rest of Africa, still enjoys great stability and wealth. The government is considered pragmatic and pro-Western, although there is some concern about the increasing military infrastructure spending. Currently, Botswana's biggest problems are unemployment, AIDS, population exodus to the cities and unstoppable birth rate, which has started to decline in recent years by the spread of HIV and AIDS in the age groups to have children. The country suffered from devastating floods in 2000 that left 70,000 homeless, while droughts in recent years have caused great human suffering, especially in the west. In 2004, the rate of HIV infection and AIDS in Botswana was 37.5%, and the country attending a migratory influx of refugees fearful of Zimbabwe. Despite these problems, Botswana remains a peaceful nation.