Borneo jungle is more liable each day, and what was once a primary forest is making strides towards palm plantations for palm oil processing, used in the first world as boicombustible. There are many environmental impacts produced by this culture, beyond the obvious deforestation that has resulted from the clearing of lowland rain forest to establish plantations (86% of deforestation in Malaysia between 1995-2000 was produced by the crop). Several studies have found a significant reduction in biological diversity (about 80% in plants and 80-90% in mammals, birds and reptiles) after conversion of forest to oil palm plantations. In addition, many animals are not able to move through the fields, while others, such as orangutans, become pests for crops, which puts them at risk of being poached by the plantation managers. The use of herbicides and pesticides also can affect species composition and pollute local streams. Drainage systems required by crops (palm oil Borneo down quite often in swamp forests) may lower the water level, affecting the surrounding wooded areas. Even the destruction of peat bogs increases the risk of floods and fires. Burning to clear land, caused by large palm plantations owners, were the main cause of large fires that occurred during 1997-1998 on the island. Given the scarcity of wood in parts of Borneo, a large segment of its population currently has few economic options. Oil palm appears to be the best alternative for communities that can barely survive on rubber plantations, rice crops and orchards subsistence. When a large agricultural firm enters an area, some community members are eager to be part of an oil palm plantation. Lacking legal title to their land, the people of the communities agree to the purchase of 2-3 hectares (5-8 acres) of land for crops of this palm. Usually they ask the company purchased $ 3.000 to 6.000 dollars (with interest rates of 30% per annum) to buy seeds, fertilizers and other inputs. As oil palm takes about 7 years to bear fruit, these people work during that time in mature plantations receive a salary of $ 2.50 a day. Meanwhile, their property does not generate revenue but require inputs that the company sells. Once the crop becomes productive, generates an average income of $ 682-900 per month for every 2 acres. In the past, wood and rubber generate between $ 350 and $ 1000 per month, according to Curran. The low profit margins combined with high initial costs and relatively high interest payments virtually ensures that small holders will be permanently indebted to the company that owns the business. Curran studies suggest that communities of West Kalimantan are deeply concerned about the flooding that may occur after the establishment of oil palm plantations. They also worry about the loss of forest resources and cultural. The elders of the communities do not always like the idea of women and children working on plantations. The palm plantations also lead to increased dependence on farming enterprises because people can no longer produce their own food. Finally, some communities have expressed their dissatisfaction with working for the Malays. They prefer to work independently, says Curran. Although they have a number of complaints, few people see alternatives.